Letters and Sounds is carefully structured in six phases to teach children the phonic knowledge (the alphabetic principle) and skills (blending and segmenting) they need in order to decode effortlessly and fluently. A daily teaching sequence supports the process of consolidating existing teaming, acquiring new learning, and applying that learning to fully decodable texts of increasing length. The phonic phases build phonic knowledge incrementally from the simple to the more complex, and include the teaching of high frequency ‘tricky’ words that are not totally phonically regular. These are introduced in alignment with each phase according to their phonic components to build confidence and independence in reading and spelling. An indispensable component of each day’s discrete session is the ‘Apply’ section of the teaching sequence, where the teacher demonstrates how new learning can be applied through reading and writing captions, instructions, questions and phoneme spotter stories. This ensures that children are consistently practising their developing phonic skills and knowledge at the point of learning. Experiencing early, rapid and sustained success helps children to see the relevance of phonics to reading and spelling, reinforcing each day that the purpose of phonics is to enable them to become independent readers and writers.